Barbara A. Bockstahler; Wolfgang Henninger; Marion Müller; Elisabeth Mayrhofer; Christian Peham; Iztok Podbregarc ( 2007)
Borderline hip dysplasia influences joints kinematics of clinically sound Belgian Shepherd Dogs.
American Journal of Veterinary Research (AJVR) 68, (3), 271-276

Objective - To detect changes in joint kinematics of clinically sound dogs with or without radiographically detectable borderline hip dysplasia (HD). Animals - 20 Belgian Shepherd Dogs (Malinois; mean ± SD age, 2.75 ± 1.32 years) with no clinical signs of HD. Procedures - Kinematic gait analysis was performed in Malinois walking on a treadmill. On the basis of results of radiographic examination for HD and in accordance with guidelines established by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, dogs were assigned to group 1 (no radiographic signs of HD; 8 dogs) or group 2 (borderline HD; 12 dogs). Ground reaction forces and weight distribution among limbs and differences between groups were evaluated. Maximal sagittal angle during the stance and swing phases, the time at which they were detected, and angle velocities were calculated for joints of the hind limbs. Results - Ground reaction forces revealed no differences between groups. Dogs in group 1 had significant changes (earlier time for maximal flexion of the hip joint and less flexion and less range of motion of the stifle joint), compared with results for dogs in group 2. Maximal angle velocity of the stifle and tarsal joints was significantly lower during the swing phase in group 1 than in group 2. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - This study revealed that dogs with borderline HD had altered joint kinematics. Our data provide basic kinematic values for clinically sound and affected dogs and can be used to investigate the long-term effects for subclinical radiographic changes of the hip joints of dogs.

Gabriele Gradner, DVM, Barbara Bockstahler, DVM, Christian Peham, Prof., Wolfgang Henninger, Diplomate ECVDI, Iztok Podbregar, M.Sc, PhD ( 2007)
Kinematical Study of the Back Movement in Clinically Sound Malinois Dogs with Consideration of Radiographic Changes in the Lumbosacral Junction.
Veterinary Surgery, 36(5), 472-481

Objective: To determine thoracolumbar spinal movement in dogs and the influence of subclinical radiographic changes involving the lumbosacral junction. Study Design Experimental study. Animals Clinically sound Malinois dogs (n=22). Methods Kinematic analysis of markers on the spinal processes of C7, T6, T13, L3, L7, and S3 was performed while dogs were walking on a treadmill. Range of motion (ROM) in the transverse and vertical direction and the time of occurrence (TOO) of the maximal marker position were calculated. ROM and TOO of angulations formed by the corresponding markers were calculated. Initial kinematic analysis was performed without knowledge of the radiographic changes, and then data were reanalyzed to determine whether vertebral changes influenced back motion. Based on the results of radiographic analysis of the lumbosacral junction, dogs were divided into 3 groups: 1=no radiographic changes; 2=shortened L7 vertebra; and 3=transitional vertebrae, spondylosis, subluxations, and spondylarthrosis of the lumbosacral junction. ROM and TOO were compared using ANOVA for repeated measures and a Bonferroni's post hoc test; P<.05 was considered significant. Results The highest transverse ROM was achieved by markers T6, T13, and L3, and in the vertical direction by S3; however, there were no significant differences in ROM in horizontal angulations. In the sagittal plane, T13-L3-L7 had a lower angulation than L3-L7-S3. In Group 3, transverse ROM for C7 was significantly higher than in Group 1; the horizontal angular maximum of T13-L3-L7 occurred significantly earlier. Conclusions Significant kinematic changes were detected between clinically sound dogs with radiographic lumbosacral changes and dogs with no radiographic abnormalities. Clinical Relevance Kinematic data from clinically sound dogs can be used for comparison with data from dogs with gait disturbances associated with orthopedic or neurologic disease or changes associated with therapy. © Copyright 2007 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.




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